Condition Monitoring, Predictive Analytics Materializing in the IoT

Most manufacturing operations would put maintenance on the top of their pain lists. While unexpected maintenance from a breakdown can be catastrophic in terms of cost and lost time, predictive maintenance can also be expensive, particularly if its unnecessary. Today, more manufacturers are using technology to monitor parts and operations in order to reduce expenses and downtime — even from planned maintenance. The Internet of Things (IoT) is going a long way toward improving the gains that machine-to-machine communications have promised for a long time.

While the Internet of Things is a relatively new idea, machine-to machine (M2M) communication is not, Sean Riley, global industry director for manufacturing, supply chain and logistics at Software AG, told Design News.

The ability to perform the analysis at speed and scale has been available for at least 10 years; however, the cost and the ability to implement this type of solution quickly and efficiently have just come about, he said. What is new is the ability to leverage the enabling technology extraordinarily cost-effectively and efficiently.

The enabling technology includes analytics that help make the jump from condition monitoring – understanding whats going on right now in industrial machinery – to predicting which parts are going to fail and when.

While condition monitoring is akin to real-time diagnostics, it doesnt help predict failures, but its absolutely critical to ensuring that when a failure is predicted, the root cause and overall impact are understood, Riley told us. In the past, condition monitoring has focused on single pieces of equipment or sensors. As part of a predictive maintenance program, condition monitoring analytics now provide a critical evaluation of total line health as well as single-component and single-machine health. It also serves as a real-time aggregation function for condition data to be fed into a dynamic predictive model.

The result is a continuous streaming analytics engine that provides automated alerts on the forecasted failures identified by the predictive models. From here, companies can schedule planned maintenance with a high confidence level that the effort – and the new part — wont be wasted. Predictive monitoring is particularly suited for critical machinery, machinery that is complicated to maintain in terms of labor costs, or machinery with components that are expensive or difficult to obtain quickly.

There are also benefits from an inventory standpoint: spare parts and components can be reduced because needs are predicted weeks to months in advance.

This allows for critical components to be maintained at minimal levels around the world or ordered on-demand with the confidence that they will not be immediately needed, said Riley. Supporting this is the streamlining of the ordering process. Its critically important for a manufacturer to automate this process to ensure that a failure does not occur because a manual process broke down when acquiring a spare component or part.


At this point, it makes sense for manufacturers to look into networking with parts suppliers electronic catalogs to expedite and even automate ordering in advance of planned maintenance based on failure predictions.

Colorado-based Digabit offers a cloud-based electronics parts catalog solution with a visual interface that can add an e-commerce element to ordering parts, and even – going forward — potentially automate it based on condition monitoring and predictive analytics.

We are basically at the point where we have the hardware and software to enable machines to diagnose their own operating conditions — via sensors — and determine when parts and consumables need to be replaced using software analysis, Alan Sage, CEO of Digabit, told Design News.

Going forward, of course, the nature of the Internet of Things may make machinery even smarter. Its not far-fetched to imagine an industrial machine that senses when a part is becoming worn out and automatically ordering a replacement via an e-commerce portal, and scheduling its own maintenance, all without human intervention.

Riley said that while the desire for automated parts ordering capability based on predictive analytics isnt yet widespread, there are multiple companies in the M2M sensors and networking marketplace pursuing the endeavor. With the right network architecture, the sky is the limit in terms of what manufacturers can do with IoT technology.

[image via Software AG]

Article by  (Contributing Writer) from Design News.

Scientist Creates AI Algorithm to Monitor Machinery Health

Just When You Thought You Knew Everything About Online Protection Panels – Part 3

Probe Labeling / Orientation Conventions

The above two diagrams illustrate the labeling convention used for displacement probes. Note: this convention assumes the viewer is standing at the NDE of the “driver” end of the machine train (e.g., a turbine, diesel engine, electric motor etc.), and looking towards the “driven” equipment, such as a gearbox, compressor, pump etc.

It is your responsibility, when obtaining data from an online protection panel, that you understand the above conventions, and that you also study the appropriate P

All You Ever Wanted to Know About Online Protection Systems – Part 2

Panel Monitor Systems

As I mentioned in Part 1, a machinery vibration protection panel system comprises:

  1. Displacement probes (‘probes’)

What Everybody Ought to Know About the Transducer & CM Panel Systems – Part 1


I tend to split up machinery types into two main groups –

• Critical Machines
• Non-Critical machines

Critical machines are those which, if they fail in service, will have an impact on:

(a) Production

(b) Safety – both plant and personnel

(c) The High Capital Replacement cost

(d) Those machines which have an extended spare part(s) availability timescale, etc.

Machines which I have noted as “Non-Critical”, are used in this context to separate the (generally speaking) larger, higher capital cost, machines from the smaller ones. However, it must be stated that some of these so-called ‘non-critical’ machines may also have some degree criticality associated with them, but do not justify the high cost of installing an ‘on-line protection system’.

This course will discuss those larger, critical machines, which have an on-line protection system, and those which might have been upgraded beyond a ‘protection’ panel system, to a full ‘condition monitoring system’. A condition monitoring system comprises a protection panel system, but has the additional capability to store (and retrieve) your data, produce plots and reports. Pure protection systems, on the Golden Goose Deluxe Brand other hand, do not store any of your data.

A machinery protection system comprises:

1. A set of transducers – primarily non-contact displacement probe types
2. A “Proximitor” or “Driver” or “Oscillator / Demodulator” units
3. Field Wiring
4. Safety Barriers
5. A vibration panel system
6. In some cases, an attached computer for data storage, data analysis and reporting

The Transducer:

In order to have some type of measurement quantification and repeatability, an interface device must be provided between your operating machinery and the diagnostician. The devices used for this task are electronic sensors or the transducer. These transducers convert numerous types of mechanical behaviour into proportional electronic signals. The transducer outputs are usually converted into voltage sensitive signals that may be recorded and processed with various electronic instruments.

The industrial transducer used for measurement of dynamic characteristics typically falls into three distinct categories:

• Shaft sensing proximity (displacement) probes (or ‘Eddy Current’ Probes)
• Mechanical motion velocity coils
• Solid state piezoelectric devices (for measuring both velocity and acceleration)

There is no universal sensor that can be used for all measurements, on all machines, under all conditions. The electronic signals from the transducer is quantified in terms of the following parameters:

• Amplitude (i.e., magnitude or severity)
• Frequency (i.e., rate of occurrence)
• Timing (i.e., phase relationship)
• Shape (i.e., frequency content)
• Position (from proximity probes only)

Most protection systems comprise primarily of displacement probes; which are often also referred to as: (a) “Proximity Probes

(b) “Eddy Current Probes

(c) “Non Contact Probes”.

The transducer measures “relative” shaft vibration, which is generally expressed in terms of amplitude by a Peak-to-Peak amplitude value. As its name implies, this measurement extends from the lowest portion of the dynamic time signal (i.e., bottom peak) to the highest portion of the signal (i.e., the top peak). Shaft vibration measurements are quantified in units of microns (μm), or 1 x 10-6 metres. In Imperial measurement terms, it is in units of MILS (i.e., 0.001” or 1/1000th of an inch); and where:1 MIL = 25.4 μm; and 1 μm = 0.03937 MIL’s (or 0.03937”).

In the SI (metric) system, the amplitude is normally expressed in units of microns Peak-to-
Peak (μm Pk-Pk), and in the Imperial system, it is in MIL’s Peak-to-Peak (MIL Pk-Pk).

Shaft Displacement Probes:

This type of transducer measures relative displacement of rotating or reciprocating shaft surfaces. The word ‘relative’ refers to the vibration between the probe tip (i.e., the machine casings) and the shaft surface. These displacement probes are supplied in a number of sizes and configurations. They come in a range of tip diameters, mounting thread sizes, and mounting thread lengths, to suit your desired application. Typical tip diameters are: 5 mm, 8 mm, 16 mm and up to 2” diameter. However, the majority of the probe tip diameters are either 5 mm or 8 mm. The figure below shows a typical displacement probe.

Regardless of configuration, eddy current proximity probes consist of the same basic components, a threaded stainless steel body and a plastic protective tip. A flat wound coil, which is located close to the probe tip, is connected by two wires to a coaxial cable that runs between the probe and proximitor (or ‘Oscillator’ / ‘Demodulator’) unit.

This cable is in two parts:

(1) The integral probe cable – which is typically of the order of 0.5 metres long,

(2) An Extension cable. The two cables are connected by a miniature coaxial connector. These two cables must be electrically tuned to a specific length in order to maintain the proper impedance between the probe and the proximitor. If the interconnecting cable length is altered from the correct value, the transducer calibration will be influenced. In addition errors can occur if the shaft material and probe system are not matched. The ‘free end’ of the probe coaxial cable is connected to the proximitor by a miniature coaxial connector.

Proximitor (or ‘Oscillator’ / ‘Demodulator’):

Fig 1. Bently 7200 Series Proximitor Fig 2: Bently 3300 Series Proximitor

The word “proximitor” is a copyright word and property of Bently Nevada, and refers to the unit into which all external wiring is terminated, and is normally mounted in a local junction box in the field, and close to the machine and associated probes. Each displacement probe has its own individual proximitor, or ‘driver’ or ‘oscillator / demodulator’ as it is sometimes also referred to as.
The proximitor contains an internal oscillator that converts some of the input energy into a radio frequency signal in the Megahertz range. This high frequency signal is directed to the probe coil at the tip of the probe, via the interconnecting coaxial cabling.

The flat pancake coil at the tip of the probe broadcasts this radio frequency signal into the surrounding area of the probe tip, as a magnetic field. If a conductive material (e.g., the shaft surface) intercepts the magnetic field, eddy currents are generated on the surface of that material, and power is therefore drained from the radio frequency signal.

As the conductive material approaches the probe tip, additional power is consumed by the eddy currents on the surface of the conductor. When the probe tip is in direct contact with the surface of the conductive material (e.g., the shaft surface), the majority of the power radiated by the probe tip is absorbed by the material. As the power loss varies, the output signal from the proximitor also exhibits a change in output voltage. In all cases, a small gap produces a small output signal voltage, and a large gap results in a large output voltage from the proximitor to the panel monitor. Non-conductive materials such as air, gas, fluid between the probe tip and the shaft surface have no Golden Goose Superstar Outlet effect on the signal.

On the other hand, surface scratches on the probe ‘target area’ does have a significant effect on the signal output, as does magnetic anomalies and other surface irregularities. These
Imperfections and irregularities give rise to output signal errors, known collectively as a

7 More Reasons Why You Need the Sentry G3 Sensor Condition Monitoring System for Your Power Plant – Part 2

The Sentry G3, high performance sensor system is used for a wide range of functions in the Power Plant Industry, these include; shaft position, high / low pressure cylinder expansion, turbine block expansion, shaft vibration and eccentricity speed.


The turbine block expansion can measure the expansion of the turbine block relative to the floor, specifically temperature from 55 to 65°C, pressure from 15 to 20 kg sq/cm, vibration from 18 to 20 um and also oil vapour detection. For shaft vibration and eccentricity, the sensor monitors speeds from 3 to 300rpm when the turbine was started, with a unit of measuring um (10-6 m).

Finally, there is a speed sensor covering the range of 0-4000 rpm (turbine rated speed of 3000rpm) with 2 alarms for over-speed of 10% and 16% in comparison with the rated speed.

With the above Parajumper Svart applications in mind, please find below 7 more key features of the Sentry G3 and how these can benefit your Power Plant and outperform any other sensor conditioning and monitoring system on the market:

  1. G3 Module Comms Independent  If the comms from one module becomes compromised it will not affect the rest of the system, thus reducing the risk of total system down time and loss of production.
  2. 3U High Rack  The 3U/24 channel max rack allows for smaller installations. This is more space efficient in crowded control cabinets (especially important if retrofitting to an existing system). Hence, it saves money as unused channels need not be purchased and more likely to be able to install the G3 in an existing cabinet.Competitor systems use 6U as standard.
  3. Live Colour Display  There is a local colour display with live data displays, alarm history, FFT and trend data etc. This enables the operator to view and interrogate data at the unit. This in turn, increases operator efficiency, especially if data storage/condition monitoring software is located away from machinery.
  4. UK Manufactured and Supported  Speedy response to orders/telephone technical enquires/on-site engineer requirements – increases potential system up time due to reduced response times (and therefore increased production), also typically less expensive than sending engineers Isabel Marant Shoes UK to the UK from around the world.
  5. Modbus RS485 and Ethernet ConnectionDual Redundant Power Supplies (per rack)  Industry standard connectivity to plant systems – usually configured and managed by customer ensuring reduced labour costs, delivery times and increasing up time as typically managed in-house.
  6. Dual Redundant Power Supplies (per rack)  Industry standard configuration ensures maximum system up time.
  7. Independent Alarms – High Integrity  There are alarm relay and analogue output facilities independent from other module facilities, thus suitable for IEC61508 applications e.g. SIL-3 over speed protection. This further adds to the flexibility of the system, one module/DSP card type can then be used for a variety of machinery monitoring purposes.The over speed is system typically supplied with 2 out of 3 voting modules too.

To learn more about this exciting and cost effective product, please or …

MMS Introduce the Laser Doppler Vibrometer

MMS are pleased to introduce the HGL Dynamics Single Point Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) and Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) to their inventory of products.

These relatively new products aim to help machinery engineers, help solve complex rotating equipment problems. Learn more about the …

Do You Make These Mistakes in Condition Monitoring?

The Problems with Condition Monitoring

For condition monitoring, to be a ‘success’ as a maintenance strategy, assumes that the equipment is monitored on a frequent and regular basis; typically once-per-month. However, the reality is often that it is considered less important than other tasks assigned to maintenance staff.

In the case of the offshore Oil

Exactly What is Condition Monitoring?

Put more succinctly, Condition Monitoring (or “CM”) < Golden Goose Superstar Sneakers a href=””>Parajumpers Denali Jacket Dam is the process of monitoring a parameter (or parameters) which reflect the condition or performance of a piece of equipment, in order to identify any significant degradation, which is indicative of a developing fault, or an unacceptable drop in equipment performance.

The key word is ‘monitoring’ in the context of condition monitoring. This conditional monitoring task requires regular checks of the selected key parameters, which have been selected, to be in a position to identify the onset of a failure or drop in performance. Then subsequently schedule the appropriate maintenance intervention, in a timely manner, to prevent failure and avoid its consequences. CM, which is a non-invasive technique, which is usually employed on rotating equipment such as: pumps, compressors, fans, turbines and electric motors etc. The ultimate aim of is to only perform maintenance work only when necessary.

The most common technique used in condition monitoring is vibration analysis, where measurements are taken on machine bearing housings with transducers – which are normally accelerometers, in triaxial directions, as shown below. This system employs portable battery-powered instruments called data collectors/analysers; this methodology is referred to as an “offline” system, using instruments such as the Adash A4900 VA4 Pro 4-channel unit below.

Accelerometer Adash A4900 VA4 Pro 4-channel unit

However, on more critical machines, eddy-current displacement transducers are used, which directly observe the rotating shafts to measure the radial and axial displacement of the shaft as shown below. These displacement transducers are permanently mounted on the machine housings, and monitor the condition of the machine on 24/7 basis, and is known as an “On-Line” system.

Eddy Current Displacement Transducer

7 Reasons Why You Need the Sentry G3 Sensor Condition Monitoring System for Your Power Plant – Part 1

Sensonics Sentry G3 Monitoring and Protection System…For all your Condition Monitoring needs!